Knee conditions are one of the main causes of functional limitation causing gait disorders and restriction in activities in general. The knee's main movement is to participate in the flex and extension of the lower extremities; whilst provide stability when carrying weight, mobility and locomotion.
The knee however, is very unstable laterally and medially. The stability of the knee is given by the morphology of the joint, the capsule-ligamentous and meniscal structures (which provide passive stability) and, the muscular structure, mainly the quadriceps, which provides active stability.
The injuries in this joint, are caused by a number of processes mainly by trauma, inflammation or degenerative diseases, as well as osteochondrosis which may occur less frequently.
The trauma causing knee injuries are usually low energy (75%), especially in elderly people with osteoporotic or worn bone. Periprosthetic fracture is very common in patients with knee prostheses. The remaining 25% is produced by very high energy injuries such as traffic accidents and falls of great heights.
The Knee can also be Injured if:
- Laxity: There is weak laxity or consistency in your ligaments which makes it easier for you to extend your knee sharply to get injured.
- Muscle Insufficiency: makes the knee more unprotected since there is less stability.
- Work Habits: certain professions often require forced postures in flex, which demand greater articulation demands.
- Deviation of the knees in Valgus or Varus: this causes greater compression in certain compartments of the knee.
- Obesity: if there is more weight, the greater the pressure that the knee must support
- Violent Efforts: The practice of sports, the execution of extreme gestures, increases the risk of injury.
- Wear: Sometimes, the injury mechanism can be something as daily as going down a sidewalk or a step, a little stronger support than usual is given on this structure already punished and ends up breaking.