Bone is a very active tissue that is constantly remodeled during life, in order to make micro-repairs, adapt the skeleton to mechanical loading and maintain the balance of calcium and phosphorus.
Osteoporosis is defined as a disease in which there is an increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to the risk of fracture, due to a detriment or decrease in bone mineral density (amount of bone tissue) and bone quality (structure and bone composition).
Bone loss can occur as a result of an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption.
Osteoporosis is a disease whose clinical manifestations are non-existent until the fracture occurs. Bone deterioration occurs insidiously, over the years (sometimes more quickly), without the patient being aware of it.
It usually occurs after menopause due to the decline of hormones in women or as part of age-related processes (50 years and older).
Other non-genetic factors such as physical activity, nutrition, alcohol, and cigarette consumption, and some medications.
Fractures are frequent in the femur, femoral neck, proximal tibia, and pelvis.
Risk factors for the development of Osteoporosis:
- Gender: osteoporosis is more common in women
- Age: The risk of osteoporosis increases with age
- Size: short size and small bones
- Ethnicity: Caucasian and Asian women are at greater risk of osteoporosis
- Family history: susceptibility to fractures can be, in part, hereditary
- Sex hormones: the abnormal absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea) and estrogen deficiency (menopause) in women, and low testosterone levels in men
- Not have children (nulliparity)
- Sedentary life or prolonged rest
- Low intake of calcium and vitamin D
- Medications: for example, glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
- Low body mass index
- Excessive caffeine consumption
- Excessive salt intake (sodium).
Prevention measures for Osteoporosis:
- Educate from childhood with good nutrition and the practice of physical exercise & Balanced diet with adequate protein intake, calcium between 1,000 to 1,500 mg/day including that of diet and supplements, and vitamin D.
- Weight-bearing exercises that reduce the risk of falls and improve bone formation
- Muscle-strengthening activity
- Eliminate smoking
- Reduce alcohol intake
- Correct vision defects
- Evaluate medications that may be associated with vertigo or body roll
- Prevent falls
- Use hip protectors.
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