Most cases of ACL injuries occur in young patients, as a result of indirect trauma to the knee, during sports and are often not diagnosed at the initial time.
After the ACL injury, mild symptoms will appear such as: mild joint pain, swelling or inflammation and a feeling of instability and knee failure, mainly in torsion-trimming-deceleration activities.
If an injury with evolution not diagnosed in time, the knee will suffer repeated episodes of joint failure, with femoral-tibial subluxation, mainly during trimming-jump-deceleration maneuvers; These subluxations, under the influence of body weight, will cause secondary joint damage (meniscal, chondral and capsule-ligamentous lesions), increasing the degree of joint laxity or softening and conditioning a progressive joint deterioration, which now can be detected in radiographic studies (flattening off the condyle, subchondral sclerosis, joint impingement and osteophyte formation), although radiographic changes are usually “delayed” with respect to symptoms and arthroscopic findings.
The Main Goals of Treatment after an ACL Injury:
- Restore joint function (stability and kinematics) in the short term and
- Prevent the appearance of degenerative alterations in the long term.
According to the patient's age, the most appropriate treatment will be decided, in addition the degree of instability of the knee, the association of other lesions (ligamentous, meniscal, chondral), the level of activity of the patient and their functional expectations will be taken into account , labor and sports.
Long-term studies will be necessary to establish treatment indications.
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